Atlanta, GA, January 20-23, 2017
ALCTS-CAMMS Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (SGFI)
Faceted Subject Access Interest Group
PCC Participants Meeting
(Selected for interest to MLA)
Subject Analysis Committee
Presentation: “Music & Law Genre/Form: Implementation, Practice, and Experience” (Lia Contursi, Columbia University Law Library)
Contursi discussed best practices for the application of law genre/form terms, and examples
of problematic terms vis-à-vis past practices for the application of Library of Congress Subject Headings. She then provided an overview of the method employed by the Classification and Subject Analysis Working Group of the American Association of Law Libraries for the project of retrospective implementation of law genre/forms. Some genre/form terms are derivable from LCSH headings, but many are not. As an alternative source of data, AALL is also experimenting with conventional collective titles as an indicator of genre/form.
One area of concern is the need to encode jurisdiction within the 6xx block of the MARC record. Though other MARC fields such as 751 and 370 are available for this purpose, the law cataloging community wishes not to lose this access in the 6xx block. Thus, while some genre/form LCSH headings may be removed as part of retrospective implementation, some may need to remain in order to bring out jurisdiction (e.g., Law $z South Africa). AALL continues to explore these issues.
Presentation: “Faceted Vocabularies for Music: Dispatches from the Front Lines” (Casey Mullin, Western Washington University)
Mullin began by laying out the rationale for the move away from LCSH to describe what musical resources are (as opposed to what they are about). LCSH practice, which must also accommodate describing works about music, is fraught with problems and inconsistencies, and is difficult to learn for librarians and end users alike. With the advent of LC’s new
faceted vocabularies and the new MARC fields defined to hold them, music catalogers can now describe resources with the explicit precision not possible in LCSH. He illustrated MLA’s best practices for LCMPT and LCGFT through a series of examples which showed LCSH and faceted vocabularies side by side. Other attributes, including creator/contributor characteristics, audience characteristics, and chronological and geographic attributes, were included as well, though these attributes are not covered in MLA best practices as of yet. Mullin proceeded to summarize work done thus far by MLA to pursue retrospective
implementation through machine generation of faceted terms based on LCSH music headings and other coded data in MARC bibliographic records. MLA has been partnering with Gary Strawn (Northwestern University) to devise algorithms for crosswalking LCSH headings to faceted data. Mullin described functional requirements, components of the process, and the many challenges faced, as well as suggesting a possible future for LCSH itself.
Report of the liaison from the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (Janis Young)
Librarian of Congress Dr. Carla D. Hayden took the oath of office as the Librarian of Congress on Sept. 14, 2016, in the Great Hall of the Thomas Jefferson Building. Chief Justice John J. Roberts administered the oath of office. Speaker of the House Paul Ryan (R-WI), Senators Roy Blunt (R-MO), and Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) participated in the event, attended by 24 Members of Congress. President Barack Obama nominated Dr. Hayden to be the next Librarian of Congress on Feb. 24, 2016, following the retirement of former Librarian of Congress James H. Billington on Sept. 30, 2015. The nomination was approved by the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration on June 9, and the full Senate approved the nomination on July 13 in a 74-18 vote. Dr. Hayden is the 14th Librarian of Congress and the first woman and first African American to hold the position.
Merger of PSD and the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division In July 2016, the Director of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Division, Beacher Wiggins, began a process to merge two ABA divisions: the Policy & Standards Division and the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division. These two divisions are prime candidates for merging because of the overlap, intersection, and related tasks carried out by the staff of both divisions. These include the focus on standards; sharing cataloging policy decisions; responding to queries from the cataloging community; interacting with internal and external constituents as LC experts; providing training and briefings; and producing/maintaining documentation.
In Nov. 2016, the Cataloging Distribution Service launched an open-access version of its robust MARC distribution service. The new provision, called MDSConnect, makes available the Library’s 2014 retrospective files and provides access to Books All, Classification, Computer Files, Maps, Music, Name Authorities, Serials, Subject Authorities and Visual Materials. Nearly 25 million MARC records are available in three formats: UTF8, MARC8 and XML. The service is cloud-hosted through the Amazon Workdocs file sharing services. The open-access data is being made available primarily for research and development, at no cost to users and can be easily downloaded. Read more about MDSConnect at https://www.loc.gov/cds/products/marcDist.php.
Linked Data Service
Several changes were made to a number of datasets to enhance accuracy and access. The most significant change was the improvement of Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT) to allow terms to be collocated at a broad level. Other changes included enhancing definitions and adding versioning. To keep up to date with a major new revision of PREMIS (version 3), five new PREMIS datasets were added to ID.
Over the past six months, the focus on Cataloger’s Desktop development has been on enhancing search and retrieval through two major projects. The first project, called “Query suggestions,” enables Desktop to anticipate what the searcher wants by typing ahead as searches are entered into the searchbox. For example, if “ser” is typed into the searchbox, a dropdown box appears just below the searchbox with up to 8 suggested queries and 5 suggested Cataloger’s Desktop resource titles. Each suggested query or title highlights matches to what you’ve typed in the searchbox and can be selected by either left mouse-clicking or using the down arrow key and then clicking “enter.” This feature also takes advantage of Desktop’s fuzzy matching capabilities (e.g. “serr” will retrieve “serials”).
The second project, called “Metadata enhancement,” makes Cataloger’s Desktop searches narrower, better focused, and more precise by programmatically enhancing metadata attached to Desktop resources. The change involved generating a terminology dictionary created from glossaries, dictionaries, and term lists recommended by roughly two dozen subject matter experts from inside and outside of LC. These terms were deduped, and generic or ambiguous terms were removed from the resulting vocabulary. Once the vocabulary was complete, it was indexed against the 330+ Cataloger’s Desktop resources, and metadata was added at the paragraph level. The resulting metadata supports dramatically improved access without requiring the searcher to use the “right” terminology. This vocabulary has also been added to Desktop’s suggested search feature, which enables Desktop to anticipate what the searcher is looking for.
Suggestions for improving Cataloger’s Desktop should be sent to Bruce Johnson at LC at firstname.lastname@example.org. Subscribe to the free Cataloger’s Desktop discussion list at URL www.loc.gov/cds/desktop/ugroup.html.
Searching in Classification Web and Cataloger’s Desktop
Users of Classification Web and Cataloger’s Desktop should anticipate improved integration between the two services this year. A new design that will harmonize the “search” experience between the two services is being developed. The harmonized design will allow those who subscribe to both services “one-stop searching,” which should save significant time.
Subject Heading “Illegal aliens”
In 2014 and again in early 2016, the Library of Congress was asked to change the LC subject heading Illegal aliens. The proposal was not accepted in 2014. When the Library was asked in 2016, cataloging policy specialists again examined the ways that illegal activities and objects are represented in Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The Library has done extensive research on alternate headings based on survey feedback and additional research based on literary warrant. A final decision is pending but not expected to be announced until late January. The decision will be announced through the normal process.
Online Training for LCSH
In cooperation with the Simmons College School of Library and Information Science, PSD is developing free online training in Library of Congress Subject Headings. The training is being developed primarily to meet internal training needs of the Library of Congress, but it is also being made freely available through the Cataloger’s Learning Workshop as a service to the library community. The training is sanctioned by the SACO program. Training units are divided into two or more modules, each of which consists of a lecture and one or more exercises or quizzes. Technology requirements include an Internet connection and the ability to play audio and video files. The initial modules have been mounted on the CLW at https://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/LCSH. Since ALA Annual 2016, a unit on the Subject Headings Manual and another describing types of headings (e.g., chronological headings; corporate names as subjects) and their application have been added. The instructors are Janis L. Young, MA MSLS, a senior cataloging policy specialist in PSD, and Daniel N. Joudrey, MLIS Ph. D., an associate professor at Simmons. Questions or comments about the training may be directed to Janis L. Young at
Art Genre/Form Project
PSD continues to partner with the Art Libraries Society of North America to develop art genre/form terms that will be added to Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT).
The Library of Congress’ Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate, which catalogs most of the textual works acquired for the Library’s general collections, has not yet decided when it will implement the “general,” religion, and literature genre/form terms.
Demographic Group Terms
Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT) is intended to describe the creators of, and contributors to, resources, and also the intended audience of resources. Terms may be assigned in bibliographic records and in authority records for works. PSD has extended Phase 3 of the pilot through the end of 2017. Proposals for terms that are needed in new cataloging only are being accepted. Due to PSD staffing and workload considerations, proposals that appear to be made as part of retrospective projects, or projects to establish terms that are not needed for current cataloging, will not be considered. All proposals should follow the guidelines on form of authorized term, references, scope notes, research, etc., presented in the draft Demographic Group Terms Manual, which is available at http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeLCDGT/freelcdgt.html.
SACO members should use the Proposal System (Minaret) when making proposals and send an email to email@example.com to inform Coop staff that the proposals are ready, according to the normal procedure. As of this date, several hundred LCDGT terms are in the SACO proposal pipeline, so the Proposal System should be searched prior to preparing a proposal. Regarding the use of LCDGT terms in field 374 (Profession/Occupation) in the MARC Authority format, Young stated that SACO proposals based on the need for an occupation term in this field would be considered, so long as the proposals are thoroughly researched and cite a work cat. The same restriction (new cataloging only, no retrospective projects) applies.
The Library of Congress’ Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate, which catalogs most of the textual works acquired for the Library’s general collections, has not yet decided when it will implement the demographic group terms.
Report from the IFLA Liaison
IFLA 2016 Classification and Indexing Section Meetings and Open Programs Classification and Indexing met twice during the conference, on August 13 and August 17. During the first meeting, the chair Maja Zumer announced that the Section’s proposed name change had been approved by IFLA Headquarters. The Section Formerly Known as the “Classification and Indexing Section” is now called the: “Subject Analysis and Access Section.” (unofficial acronym: S&A). The Section’s web page is at:
New standing committee members are being sought for August 2017-August 2021. The explanatory call for nominations is at: http://www.ifla.org/node/10937
The deadline is February 8, 2017.
The Section has been working on a new action plan. SA&A wants to have increased collaboration and socialization with the Cataloguing and Bibliography Sections (All 3 sections used to be in IFLA’s Division IV, but are now in different divisions after a
reorganization). The all used to have their own newsletters, but now issue one in common, entitled the IFLA Metadata Newsletter. The latest issue of the newsletter is available at: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/classification-and-indexing/ifla_metadata_newsletter_dec2016.pdf
A joint Cataloguing Section-SA&A group has started working on the revision of Guidelines for authority records and references (Commonly known as GARR; 2nd ed. 2001; http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s13/garr/garr.pdf) and: Guidelines for subject authority and reference entries (Commonly known as GSARE; 1993; out of print and not available online).
The call for revision is available at: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/cataloguing/reports/Midterm-meeting_042016/garr-report
Talking points on the revision are available at: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/cataloguing/reports/garr-points_2016-final.pdf. Barbora Drobikova (Charles University, Prague) is the chair of the working group. George Prager is the liaison member from SA&A.
The Section has two active working groups: Subject Access in the New Environment, chaired by Maja Zumer, and the Genre/Form Working Group (a joint group with the Cataloguing Section, chaired by George Prager and Ricardo Santos from the Cataloging Section). Both groups are working on surveys that they intend to send out to national libraries. The Genre/Form Working met informally on August 13. Minutes of the meeting are available at: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/classification-and-indexing/ifla_metadata_newsletter_dec2016.pdf
The Working Group expects to be sending out its survey on the IFLA National Libraries list in early February 2016. It has received modest funding from IFLA Headquarters for a meeting in spring or early summer 2017 to evaluate the results of its survey (exact dates to be determined; probably at the National Library of Spain).
IFLA 2017 Conference and Open Programs
The IFLA 2017 Conference will take place in Wroclaw, Poland (a city of over 600,000 people in western Poland; the country’s fourth largest city), from August 19-25. The conference web site is at: http://2017.ifla.org/ The early registration deadline is May 15, 2017. Conference housing is also available, as of early 2017. As usual, the Subject Analysis and Access Section will be holding two meetings (times and dates to be determined). SA&A will be jointly hosting a two hour program with the Law Libraries Section: Optimizing Subject Access to Legal Resources: Solidarity in Divergence. Co-chairs are: Hélène Besnier,
(Bibliothèque Cujas, Paris), and George Prager (New York University Law School Library). There will be 1-2 keynote speakers, and 1-2 chosen from the call for papers. One keynote speaker has been decided: Barbara Szczepańska, Library and Information Services Manager, Hogan Lovells LLP, Warsaw. The Law Libraries Section has traditionally been much more focused on copyright, digital preservation, and reference-public services aspects of law librarianship rather than cataloging, so this program is an exciting collaboration. The call for papers is posted at: http://2017.ifla.org/cfp-calls/law-libraries-section-joint-with-subject-analysis-and-access-sections
SA&A will also be jointly hosting a session with the Bibliography Section: Challenging Society and Naming Identity: Subject Access and Bibliography in a Multicultural World. John DeSantis is the program chair. The call for papers is posted at:
http://2017.ifla.org/cfp-calls/bibliography-joint-with-subject-analysis-and-access Report from the SAC Working Group on the LCSH “Illegal aliens” After a lively discussion at ALA Annual, the report of this working group, which was incomplete at the time, was submitted for a vote on July 13, 2016. The summary of their recommendation, in response to LC’s proposed change (see above) is as follows: [su_quote]“This report concurs with the Library of Congress decision to change the subject heading Aliens to Noncitizens, but recommends that Illegal aliens be replaced with Undocumented immigrants where appropriate. In cases where the subject heading Illegal aliens has been assigned to works about nonimmigrants, more specific terms should be assigned.”[/su_quote]
The report was subsequently approved by the ALCTS Board of Directors. Tina Gross, working
group chair, presented on the topic during the CaMMS Forum (summarized below).
SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation
Adam Schiff has rotated off as chair of the subcommittee. Lia Contursi (Columbia University
Law Library) has been appointed the new chair.
The SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (SGFI) submitted two proposals,
which were reviewed by the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC) at Midwinter:
MARC Proposal 2017-02: Defining New Subfields $i, $3, and $4 in Field 370 of the
MARC 21 Bibliographic and Authority Formats. Available at:
MARC Proposal 2017-02: Defining New Subfields $i and $4 in Field 386 of the MARC
21 Bibliographic and Authority Formats. Available at:
The results of these proposals are summarized in the report of the MLA Liaison to MAC.
Further MARC proposals may be needed in order to facilitate retrospective implementation
(i.e., machine generation) of faceted vocabularies. Most notably, a code (to be used in $2)
or a new subfield may be needed to flag machine-generated faceted terms at the MARC
field level. Though a MARC method exists for such meta-metadata at the record level, none
exists at the field level. SGFI may draft a discussion paper about this at a future date.
Working Group on Full Implementation of Library of Congress Faceted Vocabularies
This group, charged shortly after ALA Annual 2016, is drafting a white paper, whose
intended audience will include OCLC, the Library of Congress, the Program for Cooperative
Cataloging, and other constituencies, including ILS and authority control vendors,
advocating for the full implementation (current and retrospective) of new and emerging
faceted vocabularies, most notably the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library
and Archival Materials (LCGFT), the Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus
for Music (LCMPT), and the Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT). Casey
Mullin is chairing this working group. The white paper should address:
The broad rationale for full implementation, including historical problems with the
use of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to describe what a resource is (as
opposed to what it is about)
Recommendations on how to make use of LCDGT very broadly, to better describe
entities, when appropriate, by taking advantage of this vocabulary that is
purpose-built to describe demographic characteristics
The need for retrospective implementation in legacy bibliographic records, i.e.,
machine-mediated generation of faceted terms in MARC bibliographic fields such as
382, 385, 386, 388, and 655, based on the presence in those records of LCSH
headings and data in other MARC fields
The need for retrospective application of these faceted vocabularies in LC/NACO
authority records and full implementation in newly created name authorities
Search and display improvements needed to fully exploit the terms, their syntax, and
syndetic structure; these should be expressed as broad functional requirements
rather than suggestions to improve particular discovery environments
Training needs for broad(er) implementation in current cataloging
Recommendations on any revisions needed in LC, PCC, OCLC, or other cataloging
policy and practice documentation, for example, the Descriptive Cataloging Manual
Z1, CONSER Cataloging Manual, BIBCO Participants’ Manual, OCLC’s Bibliographic
Formats and Standards, etc.
The working group presented the first draft of the white paper, entitled “A Brave New
(Faceted) World: Towards Full Implementation of Library of Congress Faceted Vocabularies”
to SAC for feedback at Midwinter, and for a vote of confidence to continue their work. SAC
approved the working group to continue, and several of its members gave valuable
feedback on the content and structure of the document. Additionally, SGFI discussed the
process for finalizing the document and the desired protocol for seeking feedback from
within SAC/SGFI and from outside consultants/readers. The working group will present a
final draft of the paper at ALA Annual 2017.
Working Group on LCGFT for Video Games
This group, charged shortly after ALA Annual 2016, is working to develop a proposed list of
video game genre/form terms for inclusion in LCGFT. Rosemary Groenwald is chairing this
working group. The group’s charge includes:
Identify suitable reference sources for video game genre/form terminology
Based on literary warrant as found on video games themselves and in reference
sources, and in accordance with principles and policies in the Library of Congress
Genre/Form Terms Manual
authority records for each recommended term, including:
Preferred and variant (“used for”) forms
Broader and/or related terms
Scope notes as needed
Citations of sources consulted
Draft a new section on video games for inclusion in the Library of Congress
Genre/Form Terms Manual
The group discussed about 150 terms in all and submitted the list to LC PSD for feedback.
PSD accepts the overall structure in principle, but declined to undertake a new LCGFT
project at this time, due to staffing limitations. The working group has decided to proceed
with preparing proposals over the next 6-12 months, so that they are ready when PSD might
be able to accept them. An alternative approach to an LCGFT project would be separate
Faceted Subject Access Interest Group
“Enhancing Access to Resources with LC’s Faceted Vocabularies” (Janis Young, LC Policy
and Standards Division)
Young gave an overview and brief history of LC’s recent developments in faceted
vocabularies, in particular the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and
Archival Materials (LCGFT), Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music
(LCMPT) and Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT). She outlined the
rationale and organizing principles for each, including adhering to the NISO vocabulary
standard (Z19.19), in the case of LCGFT and LCMPT, and eschewing the kind of overlapping,
compound terms that are prevalent in LCSH (e.g. Topographic globes). LCDGT is not a true
thesaurus in the NISO sense, as the terms are not organized in a strict hierarchy, but are
rather categorized in 11 broad groups, such as occupation, age group and religion group.
Young proceeded to demonstrate the kind of powerful faceted browsing and drill-down
limiting that are possible when the full constellation of faceted attributes are accounted for
including in particular creator/contributor characteristics, audience characteristics,
genre/form and subject. Such faceted access allows for user queries that are not yet
CaMMS Forum: “Working Within and Going Beyond: Approaches to Problematic
Terminology or Gaps in Established Vocabularies”
“The Ethics of Maintaining LCSH” (Janis Young, LC Policy and Standards Division)
LCSH has its origins in the List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalogs (1895) and
has grown and evolved significantly since then. One of the fundamental precepts of LCSH is
literary warrant, which has significant implications for maintaining a controlled vocabulary,
as terminology used in resources collected by libraries and in reference sources changes
over time. Young discussed in detail the process for how LCSH is maintained, and how PSD
vets cataloger proposals. She cited the ALA Code of Ethics as a set of guiding principles for
PSD’s work, in particular Principle 1 (“We provide the highest level of service to all library
users through appropriate and usefully organized resources”), Principle 6 (“We do not
advance private interests at the expense of library users, colleagues, or our employing
institutions.”) and Principle 7 (“We distinguish between our personal convictions and
professional duties and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair
representation of the aims of our institutions or the provision of access to their information
resources.”). These guiding principles are laudable but can be difficult to apply in every
circumstance, for instance the use of the English language to describe concepts and events
that may not originate in English-speaking countries.
Young illustrated some of these difficulties through two examples. First, the “Malaysia
Airlines Flight 370 Incident, 2015” whose cause is still unknown, means that terms like
“crash” are problematic. Ultimately, “incident” was chosen as an accurate and
non-controversial, if somewhat vague term. Second, the events in Syria that began with
protests in 2010 as part of the Arab Spring have been variously described in the news media
in the years since then. The heading initially chosen was “Syria—History—Protests, 2011-“,
but was then revised in 2013 to “Syria—History—Civil War, 2011-“ to reflect the evolution
of the conflict (with the former heading kept as a cross-reference of course). Young closed
by stating that maintaining LCSH is an enormous responsibility, tedious and occasionally
frustrating, and an awesome privilege.
“Examining the Library of Congress Subject Heading “Illegal aliens” (Tina Gross, St. Cloud
As preface, Gross invited the audience to read the SAC Working Group report, which was
approved by the ALCTS Board on July 20, 2016. Her presentation was oriented towards her
own observations and stances towards–and role in–the “long saga” of the controversial LC
subject heading “Illegal aliens.” This saga began in 2015 with student activism at Dartmouth
University that then led to a petition to LC from SALALM to change the subject heading
“Illegal aliens.” That was followed by a similar resolution by the ALA Council, the convening
of the SAC Working Group and LC’s eventual proposed cancellation of the heading. LC’s own
announcement generated some difficult questions for the Working Group, which formed
before LC’s announcement and whose charge was in part made redundant it. Ultimately,
the Working Group decided that they still had to contend with the differences in approach
between the ALA resolution and LC’s proposed change. The root of the difficulty in moving
forward in this endeavor is that there is no single term to replace the concept of “illegal
aliens” that is not pejorative; multiple headings are required to cover the concept (including
“Undocumented immigrants”, “Noncitizens” and “Unauthorized immigration”), and which
headings should be employed is not agreed upon by all parties involved.
According to Gross, the “inescapable conundrum” is that in order to facilitate access,
librarians need to create artificial structures such as controlled vocabularies, but those
artificial structures are inherently, intrinsically loaded with ideological and political
perspectives. Perhaps linked data will free libraries from the need to designate preferred
terms, but they will still need to make choices such as display label. At the very least, an
opening up of the LCSH editorial process to broader dialogue and consultation is indicated.
“Problems with Subject Access to Indigenous Knowledge” (Heather Moulason Sandy and
Jenny Bossaller, University of Missouri iSchool)
Sandy and Bossaller exposed the problems inherent in so-called “universal knowledge
organization systems” (KOSs) used by libraries in the United States. Their Western bias
precludes indigenous knowledge–defined as “the understandings, skills and philosophies
developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings”
(United Nations)–from being adequately represented. This is in part because “indigenous
knowledge may not exist in dominant cultures and therefore may not be describable by
universal KOSs used in libraries.” Though already based on literary, user and structural
warrant, dominant KOSs should also incorporate indigenous warrant, defined as “terms and
potentially classification structures are derived from the worldview of the indigenous
peoples themselves, not from the dominant cultures who write about them or who search
for information about them (Doyle, Lawson, and Dupont, 2015).”
The solution, according to the presenters, lies in “cognitive justice,” or the move to “reject
the language of universal human rights as following an unrealistic and particularly Western
notion, and seeks to replace that language with autonomy, dignity, and a ‘commons’
approach to cultural authority…the object is…to promote healing and forgiveness by
removing the continued burden of colonialism and legacy thinking (Burgess, 2015).” They
went on to cite examples such as the Xwi7xwa library’s First Nations House of Learning
(FNHL) Subject Headings and the Association for Manitoba Archives’s adaptation of LCSH,
via replacement and new terms created with input from indigenous peoples. They
concluded by stating that cognitive justice and access to indigenous knowledge should be
the focus of librarianship, and that LIS education may need to be adapted accordingly.
PCC Participants Meeting
“BIBFRAME Beyond Books: Explorations in Extending BIBFRAME 2.0 to Improve Discovery
of Performed Music” (Nancy Lorimer and Michelle Futornick, Stanford University)
Lorimer and Futornick summarized work of the Linked Data for Performed Music (LD4PM)
project, a subgroup of the Linked Data for Production (LD4P) project. The LD4PM is working
towards threefold outcomes: Linked Data tools, standards/best practices and instance data
(i.e., URIs and triples published on the web). The second of these was the focus of the
presentation. The Performed Music Ontology (PMO), a BIBFRAME extension, was presented
in detail. Other extant music RDF ontologies (such as Music Ontology and DOREMUS) could
be the basis of such an extension, but BIBFRAME was selected as the basis for its broad
appeal and interoperability with non-library communities, and lower risk of becoming a
PMO is a complex web of relationships and properties. The FRBR Work (narrower in
definition than the BIBFRAME Work) is still needed as an entity of interest. Features of PMO
New subclasses of bf:Title
new subclasses of bf:Identifier for thematic index and opus numbers
pmo:MusicKey and subclasses pitch and mode
medium of performance classes pmo:DeclaredMedium and
Particular difficulties that the project group is facing include the many things that have been
glossed over in MARC that must be made explicit in an RDF ontology and the pitfalls
associated with reusing existing vocabularies. Also, a tension exists between “traditional”
Linked Data and more recently developed library-oriented Linked Data; the former exhibits
a focus on classes and subclasses, whereas the latter exhibits a focus on properties.
Future work of LD4PM includes fuller modeling of events and dealing with
Submitted by Casey Mullin, Chair, MLA-CMC Vocabularies Subcommittee